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Spruce
Picea abies.jpg
Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Phylum: Coniferophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Picea
Link
Species

About 35; see text.

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea [1] a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from Template:Convert tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form. The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth).

Spruces are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on spruces. They are also used by the larvae of Gall Adelgids (Adelges species).

Scientists have found Norway Spruce in the mountains in western Sweden, nicknamed Old Tjikko, which at an age of 9,550 years are claimed to be the world's oldest known living trees.[2]

ClassificationEdit

DNA analyses[3][4] have shown that traditional classifications based on the morphology of needle and cone are artificial. A recent study[3] found that P. breweriana had a basal position, followed by P. sitchensis, and the other species were further divided into three clades, suggesting that Picea originated in North America.

There are thirty-five named species of spruce in the world.<[<BOTANY>]>SCIENCES Spruce

Clade IEdit

Clade IIEdit

Clade IIIEdit

Clade IVEdit

Clade VEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. Swedish Spruce Is World's Oldest Tree: Scientific American Podcast
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ran, J.-H., Wei, X.-X. & Wang, X.-Q. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Picea (Pinaceae): Implications for phylogeographical studies using cytoplasmic haplotypes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 41(2): 405–19.
  4. Sigurgeirsson, A. & Szmidt, A.E. 1993. Phylogenetic and biogeographic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in Picea. Nordic Journal of Botany 13(3): 233–246.

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